Back sprain/strain injuries may result from a single traumatic event or occur from repetitive mechanical overloading. It is important to seek treatment early after an injury due to your normal and healthy tissue being replaced by scar tissue. Acute sprain/ strain injuries are often caused by sudden movements like a fall, twist, lift, push, pull, direct blow, or abrupt straightening from a prolonged seated or crouched position. Acute strains are responsible for 60% of athletic injuries involving the lumbar spine and occur most often during practice. Athletes that participate in football and gymnastics have an increased rate of having a lumbar injury. Acute injuries are most likely to occur during the combined motions of lateral bending with flexion, extension, or rotation.
Lumbar spine stenosis is the narrowing of the central spinal canal. Symptoms may include leg pain, numbness, paresthesia, weakness and difficulty walking.
Spinal stenosis is classified as primary- caused by congenital/ developmental abnormalities, or secondary/acquired- arising from degenerative changes, trauma, infection or surgery. The process of degenerative stenosis is due to accumulation of mechanical stresses causing, intervertebral disc degeneration, facet hypertrophy and ligamentum flavum fibrotic hypertrophy or "wrinkling" ( as discs thin, the ligamentum flavum "wrinkles" in much the same way that a pant leg would wrinkle if the leg shortened).
Disc lesion refers to a disruption of annular fibers and subsequent displacement of nuclear material. Commom symptoms include pain, paresthesia (tins and needles feeling), numbness or weakness in the distribution of the affected nerve root(s).
Lumbar disc lesion is a result from a continuum of problems, some even asymptomatic. This begins with repetitive disc sprain, leading to herniation, ending in degeneration. Multiple factors contribute to the development of lumbar disc lesions. Repetitive mechanical stressors like compressive loading, shear stress, and vibration weaken annular fibers, eventually leading to disruption. Only the outermost annular lamellae are innervated, so early disruption may be asymptomatic.
"Lumbar facet syndrome" describes acute or chronic inflammation of a lumbar zygapophyseal (Z) joint. The facet joint is thought to be the source of pain in 15-45% of patients with chronic low back pain. Repetitive compression of the Z joints, especially during extension movements will cause the joint capsule to stretch. Acute and repetitve trauma also leads to joint inflammation and degenerative changes.
Individuals will feel pain during extension of the lumbar spine. Pain like symptoms are increased during the combined movements of extension, rotation, and lateral bending.